WERA066: Integrated Management of Russian Wheat Aphid and Other Cereal Arthropod Pests.
- October 01, 2011 to September 30, 2016
- Administrative Advisor(s):
Thomas O. Holtzer
Lee E. Sommers (COL) - Research
- NIFA Reps:
Statement of Issue(s) and Justification:Insect pests including Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia, greenbug, Schizaphis graminum, and Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor, are serious pests of cereal crops in the U.S. Since its introduction into Texas in 1986, Russian wheat aphid has spread throughout the western Great Plains cereal production area, the Pacific Northwest, and the desert Southwest. The total economic damage in the U.S. caused by Russian wheat aphid has exceeded $1 billion since 1986, considering crop loss, cost of pest control, and lost revenue to rural economies. Russian wheat aphid is a chronic annual pest of cereals in eastern Colorado and surrounding wheat producing areas. It also causes localized periodic damage throughout the rest of its distribution range of the western continental U.S. In 2003, a new biotype of the Russian wheat aphid was detected (designated RWA2) which had overcome Dn4 resistance that had been incorporated into several wheat varieties and deployed in the SW Great Plains region. Soon, more biotypes were detected which now number from RWA1 to RWA8. The development of these new biotypes has become a serious threat to the deployment of resistant varieties which are the primary management tool for this aphid. Crop losses from aphid pests are most common on stressed plants grown in marginal soils. Damage from Russian wheat aphid is most common in low rainfall, dryland cereal production areas, where growers tend to have the narrowest profit margins.
The greenbug is a worldwide pest of wheat and other small grains. It was first reported as a pest in North America about 125 years ago. Damage from greenbug occurs throughout the Western Region, but is most severe when rainfall is low. Annual losses attributed to greenbug average $12 million per year in the central and western Great Plains and parts of the inter-mountain basin, but can increase to over $100 million per state during severe outbreaks.
Hessian fly has been a perennial pest of wheat since it was first found on Long Island, NY in 1779. While it has been largely a pest in the eastern soft winter wheat region, it has become more problematic in western states. In 1978 it was found on the Texas-Oklahoma border and moved south. During 1984, Hessian fly caused an estimated loss of $5 million in Texas alone. Hessian fly has also been problematic in Kansas, with yield losses of 6-30% (per field) during 1993. In Georgia, Hessian fly infestation on wheat resulted in about $28 million losses during the 1988-89 cropping year. A recent upsurge in Hessian fly activity has been noticed in Oklahoma, Kansas, and Nebraska that appears to be related to the increase of no-till wheat acreage.
Several other arthropods can also seriously impact wheat, barley and oat production in the western U.S. These include the chinch bug, Blissus leucopterus leucopterus, wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus, brown wheat mite, Petrobia latens, wheat curl mite, Aceria tosichella, winter grain mite, Penthaleus major, cereal leaf beetle, Oulema melanopus, as well as various cutworms (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and other aphids such as the bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi, rice root aphid, R. rufiabdominalis, and English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae.
Promoting and sharing research necessary to help manage cereal aphids and other arthropod pests in the Western Region is a primary goal of WERA-066. Continuation of the interdisciplinary approach taken by members of WERA-066 will provide the principal mechanism to further stimulate interaction and coordination among workers to address comprehensive management of the Russian wheat aphid and other cereal arthropods in small grain cropping systems. By providing an annual forum for discussion and sharing of data on arthropod pests of cereal grains, WERA-066 will shorten the time from initial research activity to adoption by the end user. Collaboration among researchers from different states and organizations will synergize research and sharing of data with Extension specialists throughout the region and will allow earlier transfer of information to crop protection specialists and producers.
- The goal of this committee is the development of integrated management strategies for cereal aphid and other arthropod pests in small grains to improve economic viability of small-grain cropping systems while maintaining environmental quality. Specific objectives and subobjectives are listed as objectives 2 (subobjectives a-e), 3, and 4.
- Facilitate research into improved integrated pest management approaches at the field and landscape level to manage cereal arthropod pests in the western U.S. through the following:
a) Coordination of biological control, host plant resistance and cropping system research including evaluation of natural enemy performance and resistant cultivars alone and in combination in order to identify complementary management systems.
b) Coordinate research in genetics, genomics, physiology, taxonomy, and ecology of arthropod pests and their natural enemies that aid in implementing integrated management strategies in diverse agricultural systems.
c) Enhance efficient development of resistant varieties by coordinating the identification, monitoring, and characterization of Russian wheat aphid and Hessian fly biotypes.
d) Increase host plant resistance to arthropods in commercial cultivars of small grains in the western U.S. through coordinated pre-breeding for multiple arthropod resistance via marker assisted selection and other molecular tools.
e) Coordinate research in wheat genetics, genomics, physiology, and mechanisms of host plant resistance and susceptibility which facilitates acquisition of basic knowledge that will lead to new management strategies in diverse agricultural systems.
- Provide a forum for the exchange of information on other arthropod attacking small grains in the region.
- Enable Cooperative Extension personnel to exchange information, provide current knowledge of regionally adapted integrated pest management tactics, have input in research prioritization, and evaluate adoption of recommended management strategies.
Procedures and ActivitiesEach state will prepare an annual report of accomplishments and meetings will be held annually to discuss current cereal insect issues, research accomplishments and extension activities in the region. Meetings will alternate between a Western Region site and sites in other Regions where cereal arthropod research is being conducted. Annual reports (including minutes) are posted on the web at: http://nimss.umd.edu/homepages/home.cfm?trackID=357
Expected Outcomes and Impacts:
- Identify and evaluate complementary integrated management strategies (principally biological control, host plant resistance, cropping system practices, and habitat manipulations) that are principal factors in the regulation of cereal aphids at the field and landscape level.
- Optimize previously implemented strategies (principally economic thresholds and insecticide use strategies) for long-term sustainable approaches.
- Standardization and evaluation of biotyping protocols for Russian wheat aphid and Hessian fly.
- Meet jointly every other year with the Greenbug Research Consortium to enhance exchange among a wider audience of workers in cereal aphid pest management.
- Publish research findings, stressing joint publication of articles among committee participants from multiple agencies to enhance impact of research findings on the implementation of sound pest management.
Project Participation:Include a completed Appendix E form
1) Through participation of Cooperative Extension and other cooperating agencies, enhance implementation of integrated cereal aphid management strategies within states and throughout the western region.
a) Develop a regional IPM web-site that includes arthropod management guidelines, research results, and WERA-066 accomplishments.
b) Develop IPM extension bulletins and support release of popular press articles, including a Regional Wheat Handbook.
c) Present WERA-066 research results and management guidelines at state and national grower meetings.
2) Assess impact of educational plans on adoption and implementation of cereal aphid pest management strategies. This educational objective is based on a funded 5-yr USDA-ARS Areawide Pest Management Program developed by WERA-066 participants.
a) Monitor dissemination of pest management information, and adoption of pest management strategies.
b) Review information from Areawide Pest Management for Wheat USDA-ARS project on adoption of pest management practices.
Chair and Chair-Elect/Secretary selected by the participants at the annual meeting.
Attachments:[History of WERA-066 (WCC-066).pdf] [Participants (2010).pdf]
s:/Thomas O. Holtzer
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